Taiwan National Day which is also known as the National Day of the Republic of China or Double Ten Day is annually celebrated on 10th October as a national holiday in Taiwan(Republic of China). 
In mainland China, Double Ten Day is known as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution, where commemorative ceremonies are conducted. But it is not celebrated as a public holiday there. 
This holiday commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 in China which ultimately led to the collapse of the imperial Qing dynasty and led to the establishment of the Republic of China(ROC) on 1 January 1912. 
The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang (now Wuchang District of Wuhan), Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China’s last imperial dynasty. It was led by elements of the New Army, influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui. The uprising and the eventual revolution directly led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty with almost three centuries of imperial rule, and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC) in China. 
This all started in 1895 when China was decisively defeated by Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War. Intellectuals in China were divided into several factions. Constitutional monarchist reformers led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao took control initially, and orchestrated the Hundred Days’ Reform in the Qing government. In 1905, revolutionary leaders such as Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren met in Tokyo to discuss a merger between different revolutionary groups. A new group known as Tongmenghui was formed after this meeting.
After the Boxer Rebellion, many Western powers saw railway investments as part of the consolidation in their spheres of influence over China. Railway constructions took place across Shandong, Yangtze Valley, Kunming and Manchuria. This all lead to dissatisfaction among the Chinese people against the Qing dynasty rule in China which further lead to support of the people for the revolution. Confidence in the Qing government among the populace continued to deteriorate in response to the escalation of the railway crisis. 
This railway crisis led to uprising against the government and the planning process took advantage of this situation. On 10 October 1911, the New Army stationed in Wuchang launched an assault on the residence of the Viceroy of Huguang. The viceroy Ruicheng quickly fled from the residence, and the revolutionaries soon took control of the entire city. Thus establishing the government of the Republic of China. 
Following the outcome of the Chinese Civil War, the ROC government lost control of mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party and retreated to the island of Taiwan in December 1949. The National Day is mainly celebrated in ROC-controlled territories which is commonly called Taiwan, but it is also celebrated by many overseas Chinese communities today. 
This day is also very important for Taiwan as it is considered as the end of the Century of Humiliation for China as under the Qing Empire China became very weak and was subjected to foreign invasions and spheres of influences by the western powers. However when did the century of humiliation is debatable as according to PRC it ended in 1949 when it took control of Mainland China. But ROC mostly considers to be it in 1912 when Qing dynasty was dissolved and ROC was established. 
Taiwan National Day commemorates one of the most important events in Chinese history especially in the recent history. As Qing Dynasty was in power in China from 1644 and it was created by the Manchus. Although the dynasty was very successful for a long time but by the mid-19th century only it began to become very weak and corrupted and thus people of China were largely suffering under it. So the fall of the Qing dynasty in China is continuously a very important event. 
This day marks the Wuchang Uprising and hence the contribution of Chinese leaders and public in it is remembered and paid respect on this day. This day works as a memorial for all of the Taiwanese people to remember the sacrifice made by their ancestors and the bravery that they shown against the oppressive rulers. So this day salutes the bravery of such Chinese heroes and the group of Tongmenghui which played a very important role on bringing down the Qing dynasty. 
National Day connotes liberty. It is critical to learn from history so that imperial takeovers and colonial regulations do not occur again and national sovereignty is protected. In this way this day also works as an awareness day to all of the Taiwanese regarding the importance of the liberty and freedom. And for that this day also encourages unity among the Taiwanese people so that they can remain strong and no invader can rule them. 
Taiwan National Day or Double Ten Day also celebrates Taiwan’s rich cultural legacy. Great cuisine, live music, dancing, entertainment, art and other activities. It gives a moment to all of the Taiwanese ro take pride in their identity amd show their love and patriotism for the country with great joy and enthusiasm. 
Taiwan National  Day is celebrated as a public holiday in Taiwan so during this day all the public institutions, offices, schools and colleges remains closed for the day so that everyone can take part in the celebrations of this day. 
In Taiwan, the official celebration begins with the raising of the flag of the Republic of China in front of the Presidential Office Building, along with a public singing of the National Anthem of the Republic of China. It is then followed by celebrations in front of the Presidential Office Building; from time to time, a military parade may occur .
Festivities on this day also include many aspects of traditional Chinese and/or Taiwanese culture, such as the lion dance and drum teams, and cultural features coming from Taiwanese aborigines as well which are integrated into the display in recent years only. 
In the run up to Double Tenth Day, the square in front of the Presidential Office Building in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan, is illuminated. There are large parades and rallies, displays of martial arts, folk dancing, and other cultural activities on the holiday takes place all across the country. Large military parades are also organized on this day since 2016 members of the fire and police services have also joined the parade. 
Later in the day, the President of the Republic of China addresses the nation, and celebrations end with a spectacular firework display over an island in the middle of the Tarmsui River in Taipei and fireworks displays are also held at other parts of the country as well. Outside Taiwan, the National Day is also celebrated by many Overseas Chinese communities.
1. When is Taiwan National Day celebrated? 
Taiwan National Day is annually celebrated on 10th October. 
2. What does Taiwan National Day commemorates? 
It commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 which ultimately led to the collapse of the imperial Qing dynasty. 
3. What language is spoken in Taiwan? 
Mandarin Chinese has been Taiwan’s official language since 1945 and is the most widely spoken language in the country.

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